Biology is a discipline of science that studies living organisms and their interactions with the environment. As a result, it is referred to as life science or science of life. The best source of fundamental biology principles is NCERT books for class 11 biology. Reading this book will provide students with a wealth of information.
Furthermore, the 11th NCERT biology book in hindi assists pupils in expanding their knowledge of their daily lives. Both the plant and animal kingdoms are discussed, as they are equally significant for the board and NEET exam.
DIVERSITY IN THE LIVING WORLD-UNIT 1
Chapter-1:The living world
The first chapter of NCERT biology books for class 11 begins with a description of the ecosystem’s many living species. This chapter depicts the ecological clash and collaboration among these members while discussing the definition of living things. Students can learn about the many physiological systems that assist living organisms in sustaining and advancing their species.
This chapter also highlights the prevalent diversity that can be seen in any corner of the planet, regardless of weather or environment. These living species’ taxonomic categories and taxonomic aids are also discussed in detail.
Humans have attempted to categorise the entire known living population for the purposes of shelter, clothing, and food from the dawn of civilisation. Aristotle endeavoured to categorise them scientifically first. He classified plants into three categories: herbs, shrubs, and trees. Furthermore, he divided the animal kingdom into two categories: those with red blood and those that did not.
This second chapter of the 11th NCERT biology covers the scientific classification procedure as well as five different classes, including Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia, as well as Viroid, Viruses, and Lichens.
Students studied about the five classes of the plant kingdom in the preceding topic. They can learn about the Kingdom Plantae, or plant kingdom, and its subclassifications in this chapter of the class 11 biology book
Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms are the five sections that make up the plant kingdom. This chapter covers the distinguishing properties of each of these plant classes and aids in the comprehension of the classification process. Students can also learn about the various life cycles of plants and how they change generationally. As a result, pupils will have a solid understanding of the plant kingdom and its taxonomy.
Unit 2: Structural organisations in plants and animals
The Kingdom Animalia and a systemic classification procedure in which all known members can be scientifically assigned to a class are discussed in the fourth chapter of NCERT class 11 biology book . The first half of this chapter covers the classification system’s foundation. Organization levels, symmetry, triploblastic and diploblastic organisations, coelom, segmentation, and notochord are among the taxonomic variables.
In addition, the second portion of this topic concerns the classification of this kingdom based on shared fundamental physical characteristics. Porifera, Coelenterata, Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata are the phylum classifications.
Chapter-5:Morphology of flowering plants
Morphology refers to the study of an organism’s outward structure. The construction of higher plants’ external components, their relevance, and working mechanism are all covered in this fifth chapter of NCERT biology class 11. Students previously learned how to classify plants based on their morphological and other distinguishing qualities.
All of these physical traits are provided in a clear and concise manner here. Students can learn about the root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit, and seed in this chapter. It also includes a description of popular flowering plants as well as an explanation of the common traits of some important plant groups.
Chapter-6: Anatomy of flowering plants
Observing a living organism allows you to immediately notice structural differences and similarities. Anatomy, on the other hand, is the study of interior organs and their activities. This sixth chapter of the biology 11th NCERT book describes the functional organisation and internal structure of higher plants in great detail.
In other words, this chapter covers the various types of tissues found in plant bodies, as well as the varied tissue systems based on their location. This chapter also goes into the anatomy of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants in detail. Furthermore, students will learn about the two types of plant growth: primary and secondary growth.
Chapter-7:Structural organisation in animal
This chapter covers diverse animal tissues, cells, and organs, as well as their systems, functions, and so on. Students can examine the morphological and anatomical structure of earthworms, cockroaches, and frogs, for example.All these three animals represent vertebrates and invertebrates. So, students can have an idea about animal structure by learning about these animals.
Unit 3-Cell: Structure and Function
Chapter-8: The unit of life
It gives a thorough explanation of the cell and the differences between plant and animal cells. It also contains many types of cells, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, columnar epithelial cells, nerve cells, and mesophyll cells, among others. Finally, this chapter discusses the properties, functioning, and other aspects of two primary types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
By synthesising, biomolecules aid in the identification of these chemicals, which are referred to as metabolites. This topic also includes in-depth information on many metabolites.
Chapter-10:Cell cycle and cell division
Biology is the study of the biological phenomenon that every living entity begins as a single cell and grows into a multicellular organism. It explains how this process works as well as what a cell cycle is.
Interphase, M phase, G1, S, and G2 phase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and other phases of the cell cycle can all be studied by students.
Unit 4: Plant Physiology
Chapter-11: Transport in plants
relates to how water and other substances reach the upper section of a tree, as well as how different elements are transported between cells. This diagram depicts the plant’s transportation system.
Students can learn about several approaches for researching what minerals plants require for growth and survival. They learn about all of the key minerals that plants require as a result of their research. Furthermore, the technique by which plants receive these vital elements is explained in this chapter
Students can learn about the first photosynthesis experiments, the location where they took place, and the amount of pigments involved in the process. This chapter also goes over the light reaction, electron transport, ATP and NADPH usages, and the C4 route in detail.
Chapter-14:Respiration in plants
This chapter presents numerous examples demonstrating that all plants require oxygen to survive. This chapter also describes how glycolysis and fermentation connect to respiration and how important they are.
Chapter-15:Plant growth and development
This chapter of the new NCERT biology class 11 explores several aspects of growth and how metabolism impacts it. These considerations include growth metrics, stages, pace, and condition. All of these words, including dedifferentiation, redifferentiation, and differentiation, are supported by actual instances and data.
Unit 5: Human physiology
Chapter-16:`Digestion and absorption
This chapter provides a comprehensive description of the human digestive system, which includes the alimentary canal, digestive glands, and food digestion. Following that, it emphasises the process of digested food absorption.
Chapter-17:Breathing and exchange of gases
This article explains how the human body exchanges gases, transports gases, and regulates the process of breathing.Finally, it depicts problems of the human respiratory system, such as asthma, emphysema, and occupational respiratory diseases.
Chapter-18:Body fluid and Circulation
Blood constituents such as plasma, fluid matrix, and formed elements can be taught to students. It also contains information about various blood groupings.
Lymph, a fluid that takes the form of tissue, is also described here. Furthermore, students can learn about the circulatory system, the human circulatory system, and the cardiac cycle.
Chapter-19:Excretory Products and Their Elimination
The excretory system of humans is explained in Chapter 19. This topic also covers the process of urine generation, the many activities of tubules, and the concentration mechanism of filtrate.
Chapter-20:Locomotion and Movement
In this chapter, students will learn about the skeletal system and joints, as well as how this system aids human movement and locomotion. Muscle and skeletal problems such as myasthenia gravis, tetany, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout, and others are also discussed in this chapter.
Chapter-21:Neural Control and Coordination
The body’s coordination is aided by the neurological system. Students may learn about the human brain system and its functional and structural elements in this chapter of NCERT biology books for class 11. This chapter also covers the human body’s core nervous system and how it governs the majority of processes.
chapter -22:Chemical Coordination and Integration
Biology students study several endocrine glands and hormones in this class. Hormones function as non-nutritive intercellular transmitters. The importance and functions of the human endocrine system’s secretions and hormones are demonstrated.
This chapter also covers hormones in the gastrointestinal tract, the heart, and the kidneys.